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Why You Cannot Charge LiFePO4 Battery Cell Under 0°C(32°F)?

    When using lithium iron phosphate batteries, there are some situations that need to be consider. For example, do not charge the battery at less than 0 °C (32 °F).

    Let’s check the specifications of the EVE LF280N battery cells.

    EVE-280Ah-discharge-charege-temperature
    From EVE LF280N specification

    Discharge working temperature: -30°C  ~ 60°C(-22 °F ~ 140 °F)

    Charging working temperature: 0°C ~ 60°C(32 °F ~ 140 °F)

    So why we cannot charging LFP battery below 0°C( 32 °F )?

    When charging a Lithium battery below 0°C(32°F), it will trigger the lithium plating phenomenon.

    What is “lithium plating”?

    Lithium plating is the formation of metallic lithium around the anode.

    During the charging process, lithium ions from the cathode are inserted into a compound with a layered structure in the anode. During this process, also known as intercalation, is when lithium plating occurs.

    Low temperatures slows down the reaction of lithium electrons, which affects the intercalation of lithium ions. It forms lithium metal at this time.

    When lithium plating reaction occurs, the internal resistance of the battery increases and reduces the rate of chemical metabolism.

    Further more it causes a permanent reduction of the battery’s capacity and will continue to reduce its capacity each time this reaction occurs.

    The optimum ambient temperature for charging a Lithium battery is 5°C – 45°C (41°F – 113°F.)

    How to avoid charging in low temperature?

    If you plan to use lithium iron phosphate batteries in places where the temperature may fall below 0 °C (32 °F), you need to take some precautions for low-temperature charging.

    • Place the battery pack in a room where the temperature is higher than the outside environment.
    • Using a BMS with a low-temperature cutoff feature.
    • Monitoring the battery pack temperature.

    There are many Lithium Iron Phosphate battery suppliers but Energie Panda provides you brand new grade A cells. Any question and inquiries please send email to info@energiepanda.com, we answer quickly.


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