What is Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) battery?
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), also known as LFP batteries, refers to the lithium-ion batteries with lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. Here we briefly introduce the battery naming rules, we usually use the cathode material to name the battery. The negative electrode is generally using graphite. Such as ternary batteries, refers to use the NCM or NCA as the cathode material, lithium cobalt acid battery is using lithium cobaltate as the cathode material, similarly, lithium iron phosphate is using ithium iron phosphate material for the cathode.
Lithium iron phosphate battery safety performance and cycle life has a greater advantage. These are also one of the most important technical indicators of power sports batteries. 1C charge and discharge cycle life can be achieved more than 2000 times, puncture does not explode, overcharge is not easy to burn and explode. Large-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries are easier to use in parallel and in series. In terms of the principle of the material, lithium iron phosphate is also a kind of embedding/de-embedding process, same principle with lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate.
Comparing with lead-acid batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries have a longer life, lead-acid batteries are generally 1-1.5 years; with nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries have a higher operating voltage; with nickel-cadmium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries have better environmental friendliness, which is the reason lithium iron phosphate beyond these batteries, began to be popular.Although at this stage, the ternary polymer lithium battery still has a large market share, but due to the ternary polymer lithium battery has safety problems in the high energy density, lithium iron phosphate battery is gradually replacing the ternary polymer lithium battery to become the mainstream of the market, the capacity of the single cell is also getting larger (280Ah, 302Ah).
Advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries
Lead-acid battery cycle life is about 300 times, up to 500 times. While the cycle life of lithium iron phosphate batteries can reach more than 2000 times.
The same capacity of lead-acid batteries are at most 1 to 1.5 years of life. While lithium iron phosphate batteries used under the same conditions, the theoretical life will reach 7 to 8 years.
Lithium iron phosphate battery performance to price ratio is theoretically more than four times the lead-acid battery. High-current discharge can be 2C rapid charge and discharge. With a special charger, 1.5C charging within 40 minutes can make the battery full. Starting current up to 2C, and lead-acid batteries do not have this performance.
Good high temperature performance
Lithium iron phosphate electric heat peak up to 350 ℃ -500 ℃. While lithium manganate and lithium cobalt acid only about 200 ℃. LiFePO4 battery also has wide operating temperature range (-20C – +75C).
LiFePO4 battery has a greater capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.). The energy density of lead-acid batteries in about 40WH/kg. The market mainstream lithium iron phosphate, energy density are to do more than 90WH/kg.
No memory effect
The battery memory effect is a reduction in the longevity of a rechargeable battery’s charge, due to incomplete discharge in previous uses. Like nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium batteries have memory effect, while lithium iron phosphate batteries do not have this phenomenon (lithium-ion batteries generally do not have memory effects), the battery in whatever state, can be used with the charge, no need to first discharge and then recharge.
The volume of lithium iron phosphate batteries of the same capacity is 2/3 of the volume of lead-acid batteries. The weight is 1/3 of lead-acid batteries, but the energy density is several times that of lead-acid batteries.
The battery is generally considered to be free of any heavy metals and rare metals (NiMH batteries require rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certification through), non-polluting, in line with European RoHS regulations, is a green battery.
Due to the above-mentioned characteristics and the production of a variety of different capacities, LiFePO4 battery has been widely used. Its main application areas are:
Solar power system.
Large electric vehicles: buses, electric cars, tour vehicles and hybrid vehicles, etc.
Light electric vehicles: electric bicycles, golf carts, small electric vehicles, forklifts, cleaning vehicles, electric wheelchairs, etc.
Electric tools: electric drills, chainsaws, lawn mowers, etc.
Energy storage equipment for solar and wind power generation.
UPS and emergency lights, warning lights and mining lights (best safety).
Small medical instruments and equipment and portable instruments, etc.
As we have observed in the past two years, lithium iron phosphate batteries are growing rapidly in solar energy storage and electric vehicle power batteries.
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